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TECHNICAL REPORT 
NATICK / TR-82 / 019 


Food for 
U.S. Manned Space Flight 


BY M.V. KLICKA, NLABS 
AND M.C. SMITH, JR., NASA 

APRIL 1982 


UNITED STATES ARMY NATICK 
RESEARCH 8c DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES 
NATICK. MASSACHUSETTS 01760 

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 



FOOD ENGINEERING LABORATORY 


























Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 

Citation of trade names in this report does not 
constitute an official Indorsement or approval of the 
use of such items. 

Destroy this report vhen no longer needed. Do not 
return it to the originator. 








UNCLASSIFIED 


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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 


>. NCPONT NUMBCK 

NATICKn’R-82/019 


TITLE faiB 



READ mintUCTIONt 
BEFORC COMPLETINQ FORM 


1. RCCIPICMrt CATALOO NUMEER 


S. TYRE OP REPORT A PERIOD COVERED 


FOOD FOR US MANNED SPACE FLIGHT 


T. AUTMORfil) 

Mary V. Klicka, US Army Natick Research and Development 
Laboratories, Natick, MA 

Malcolm C. Smith. NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 

Hoiicfon Ty 


». f^CnromilNO ONOANIZATION NAMC AND AOOREtS 

US Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories 
Kansas ^reet 
Natick. MA 01760 


II. CONTROLLINO OPPICE NAME AND ADDRESS 

US Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories 
DRDNA-WTE 
Natick^ MA 01 


. MONIToRINO AOEnCY name a ADDRESSflf mifttmt Inm CanCrofltaS Otllcm) 


Technical 




A. PERPORMINO ORO. REPORT NUMDI 

NATICK/TR-82/019 


s. contract or orant numdert*; 


10. PROCRAM element. PROJECT, TASK 


NASA MIPR T-9371A 
2314804000 


12. report date 

Aoril 19 


IS. number op pages 
102 


IB. SECURITY CLASS, (ol Ihia npott) 


Unclassified 


IS. distribution statement r*r RapwO 


Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 


17. distribution statement (el ate ebeuect entered In Sleek 20, II ditlerent Item Report) 


IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 

The research described in this paper was performed for the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) under NDPR No. T—9371A. However, this effort benefitted from 
and drew heavily on all work carried out over the years under the DoD Food RDT& Engineering 
Program. 


19. key words (Conflnuft on rovoroo oltfo li nmemmtmy mtd IdttUiy by btoek mmbmr) 

SPACE FOODS MENUS FOOD SYSTEMS APOLLO 

SPACE FEEDING FOOD PACKAGING UNITED STATES SKYLAB 

ASTRONAUTS MANNED SPACECRAFT GEMINI SOYUZ 

SPACE CREWS SPACE FLIGHT MERCURY APOLLO-SOYUZ 


FOOD SYSTEMS 
UNITED STATES 
GEMINI 
MERCURY 


APOLLO 

SKYLAB 

SOYUZ 

APOLLO-SOYUZ 


20» AVSK^ACT fConffauo oa rovoroo oMM U n m e mmmm ry mad idmaiity by btoek mmbmr) 

The food systems which have supported the U.S. manned space flight programs have 
provided safe, nutritious, acceptable, and convenient food, compatible with the mission. The 
food systems which supported the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Flights and the Skylab and 
Apollo—Soyuz Missions are briefly described. Also the engineering operational and biological 
constraints which were imposed in these food systems by the space vehicle and environment 
are discusse(L.v The appendix. Table A-1, provides an inventory of the foods used by NASA 

/1\ 


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20. ABSTRACT (continued) 


from Project Mercury (the final flight) through the Apollo-Soyuz Test Flight. Date on portion 
weight, ingredients, processing procedures, water for reconstitution, and flight usage are incluM 
in this table. An addendum covers the foods approved for the Shuttle — Operational Flight 
Test (OFT) use along with the standard menu. 


■nTIS 6KAM 
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1 Unannounced 

Justification 


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■n^vallaBiXi^Y Codes_ 
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PREFACE 


As a result of experience gained in the development of advanced systems for feeding both 
the Army and the Air Force under stress, the food research and development organization 
of the US Army Natick R e s ea rch and Development Laboratories (NLABS) was called upon 
to design and implement the feeding requirements for the Project Mercury flights of 1961—1063 
and to continue developing foods for subsequent Gemini, Apollo, and Apollo*Soyuz flights 
and to provide technical assistance in preparing the Skylab food specifications. 

Designing space food involved more than developing acceptable nutritious food. 
Consideration had to be given to wei^t and volume, the nonavailability of refrigeration, 
requirements for short-term exposure to temperatures exceeding 55° C, the lack of cooking 
facilities and concomitant need for ready-to-eat or simple-to-prepare foods, and the fact that 
the food was to be consumed in a weightless environment. These requirements indicated a 
need for highly stable "convenience" foods. 

Toward this end six different categories of food were developed by the Food Engineering 
Laboratory of NLABS, namely: semisolid foods which were packaged in aluminum tubas arxi 
used on Project Mercury, bite-sized dehydrated foods to be eaten dry; precooked dehydrated 
foods to be reconstituted before consumption; wet foods thermally stabilized in flexible 
packages; intermediate moisture foods and radappertized foods (i.e., foods preserved by ionizing 
radiation). Of the 216 different food comportents which have been included in the 25 U.S. 
space flights launched since Project Mercury, 102 were developed by NLABS. 

NLABS has kept NASA informed of developments in the new lightweight food and 
packaging being used in or developed for military rations. Often prototype products of special 
interest to NASA have been made available to NASA for actual space flight menu use tefore 
development for the military is completed. In fact, 44 different military ration items were 
offered for NASA's consideration for possible Apollo-Soyuz Test Program (ASTP) use. Of 
these, only five products were from a standard ration in the supply system — these were 
precooked freeze dehydrated entrees from the Long Range Petrol Food Packet. 

Most of the foods offered NASA for ASTP were components of the newest combat ration, 
the Individual Ready-to-Eat Meal. The flat shape of the flexibly packaged food components 
of the Individual Ready-to-Eat Meal and their reduced packaging weight made them particularly 
attractive for ASTP use. The astronauts must have been just as pleased by their flavor and 
overall quality as were the military personnel who consumed them during service testing. Of 
the 27 military ration components used on the ASTP, 21 are components of the Individual 
Ready-to-Eat Meal. 

Two compressed cooked vegetable bars — sweet peas and leaf spinach -- also made their 
debut on space flight menus on the ASTP. These products are not novel to military cooks 
as compressed peas are in routine procurement (FSN 8915—00—401—8480) and compressed 
spinach has been service tested by all four Service. The single portion bar, however, is new. 
When packaged in a "feeder" and rehydrated, the spinach bar will expand to a full portion 
of leaf spinach - 11 times larger in size than the compressed bar. The pea bar is slightly 
larger than the spinach bar since the volume ratio of compressed peas' to uncompressed 
reconstituted round peas is only 4 to 1. 




Individual servings of irradiation sterilized meat — beef steak, ham, corned beef and 
smoked sliced turkey — were specially produced at NLABS for the ASTP flight. Irradiation 
sterilization is entirely new method of food preservation which was being pioneered by the 
military as a new food preservation process. This is also an excellent example of “spin off" 
to the space program of a new military sponsored technology not yet approved for military 
ration use. Of course the flexibly packaged irradiation sterilized products that were supplied 
NASA were produced and tested thorou^ly against very rigid criteria for safety, acceptability 
and package integrity by the US Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories. The 
1975 ASTP flight was not the first time that NASA had expressed its confidence in irradiation 
sterilized foods. Flexibly packa^ radappertized ham (ham sterilized by ionizing radiation) 
was first used on Apollo 17. It was also carried as a contingency food on Skylab. 

Many of the Individual Ready-to-Eat Meal components and diree of the radappertized 
meats used on the ASTP have been furnished NASA for use on the initial Shuttle flight 
menus — beef steak, corned beef, and smoked turkey slices. All three were included on the 
first two Shuttle Operational Flight Test (OFT) menus. 

The research described in this paper was performed for the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) under NOPR No. T—9371 A. However, this effort bertefitted from 
and drew heavily on all work carried out over the years under the DoD Food RDT& Ertgineering 
Program. 

This paper is one of two providing information on the foods included on US Space fll^ 
menus (1963 through 1975) and provides details on formulations, portion sizes, water 
requirements, and menu use for 216 space foods. A second paper will provide available 
nutritional data on each space food. 


Acknowledgements 

The authors are indebted to Edmund M. Powers, Research Microbiolgist, NLABS, for his 
contribution to the Microbiology Section, Dr. Norman D. Heidelbaugh, COL USAF (Ret.), 
now at Texas A&M University, for his helpful comments; and to Rita M. Rapp, Shuttle Support 
Branch, NASA LBJ Space Center, and Connie R. Stadler, Technology Inc., Houston, Texas 
for their assistance in completing Table A—1. Our appreciation is also expressed to Jackie 
Tardif, Joyce Barrett, Barbara Leston, and Judy Tamburro for the exceptionally good typing 
they provided. 


Addendum 

Work on this paper was completed before the food systems for the Shuttle Flights were 
developed. Therefore, an addendum has been added at the end of the paper to briefly describe 
both the interim food system which NASA is using on the first four Shuttle Flights, and the 
new Shuttle food system which will be included on fifth Shuttle mission — the first Operational 
Mission (OPS). 


2 






Table of Contents 


Preface 

Introduction 

Food Systems for Mercury Flights 
The Food Systems for Gemini Flights 
The Food Systems for Apollo Flights 
The Food System for Skylab Missions 
The Food System for Apollo-Soyuz Mission 
Microbiological Constraints 

Problems and Findings of the Various Space Flight Food Experiments 

Inventory of U.S. Space Foods 

Conclusions 

Addendum. The Food Systems for Shuttle Flights 
List of References 
Supplemental References 

Appendix: Foods and Food Supplements Included on U.S. Space Flight 

Menus 

Index of Space Foods 


P»te 

1 

5 

5 

8 

12 

19 

24 

26 

27 

30 

30 

33 

41 

45 

51 

95 


3 








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1 

i /i 

fill 


' 1 


• 

I 

‘ -*»i - 






FOOD FOR U.S. MANNED SPACE FLIGHT 
Introduction 

The food systems which have supported U.S. manned space flight programs have provided 
safe, nutritious, acceptable, and convenient food, compatible with the mission. A variety of 
engineering, operational, and biological constraints have been imposed on the food systems 
by the space vehicle and environment. The Mercury, Gemini, Apollo and Sky lab programs 
have each had distinctly different food system requirements and with the increased technical 
sophistication of the flight hardware and mission objectives, the technical sophistication of 
the supporting food system has also increased. Few background data or experiences were 
available to support food product development; therefore, every flight was a continuing 
experiment on what could be eaten and developed to advance the overall technology. 

Food Systems for Mercury Flights 

The Mercury flight food systems were limited in scope and purpose. The flights were 
of short duration, and eating in most cases was accomplished to obtain gross information as 
to the effect of null gravity on food ingestion and digestion and to ascertain the types of 
food and packaging which would be applicable to longer duration space flight. 

Semi-solid, sterile, tubed foods, fruits, and meat combinations packaged in collapsible 
aluminum tubes, adaptations of products developed for feeding Air Force pilots flying at high 
altitudes, were the initial " space" foods.* John Glenn (Mercury 6) was the first astronaut 
to carry food aboard. He consumed 119.5 grams of pureed applesauce (78.7 percent water — 
approximately 80 kcal [335 kJ]). Beef and vegetables (85 percent water — approximately 
60 kcal [271 kJ]), beef and gravy (76 percent water — 130 kcal [544 kJ]) and pureed peaches 
were also considered acceptable and made available for some Mercury flights. Schirra (Mercury 
8) consumed both beef and vegetables and pureed peaches on his flight.^ Supplementing the 
semi-solid foods were special dry bite-size foods. The first items supplied were compressed 
cocoa malted milk tablets. Each round tablet was 2.5 cm in diameter, weighed about 5 gm 
and supplied 20 kcal (84 kJ). The tablets were packaged in a tube made from kraft with 
a tear-open string. Several varieties of dessert-type, bite-size cubes (1.9 cm) under development 
for longer duration Air Force aerospace missions, were selected by astronaut Carpenter (Mercury 
7). Designed to withstand storage at 27°C these cubes softened and even melted during his 
Mercury 7 flight. This prompted the development of bite-size foods including freeze-dried 


' H.A. Hollender, Development of food items to meet Air Force requirements for space travel. 
Technical Documentation Report AMRL—TDR 64—38, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1964. 

^E.L. Michel, Preparation, handling and storage of foods for present space projects, in 
Conference on Nutrition in Space and Related Waste Problems, NASA SP-70,1964, 57-63. 


5 





Tubed foods were consumed on Mercury Flights through a 
polystyrene extension tube called a "pontube" 



Menu for the final Mercury flight (Mercury 9) consisted of bite-size foods and four rehydratables. 


6 
















products capable of meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the Mercury 
programs which included tempering for three hours at 43°C. Crude fiber content of bite-size 
foods was reduced to negligible amounts to improve energy density. Also, it was anticipated 
that the low fiber content of the diet would reduce fecal bulk and the frequency of defecation. 

Astronaut Cooper (Mercury 9) selected 10 different types of bite-size foods (a total of 
57 bites) and four rehydratable foods (dehydrated products which required addition of water 
prior to consumption) - orange and grape juice powders and freeze-dried beef pot roast and 
chicken and gravy. He actually consumed only 696 kcal (2912 kJ) of the 2369 kcal (9912 
kJ) available to him at launch.^ Because of problems with the food container and water 
dispenser during the flight, he was unable to properly reconstitute the freeze-dried foods and 
could only eat 1/3 of a package of beef pot roast. Reportedly he tired of the dry bite-size 
foods which also contributed to his low calorie intake. Dietary control of defecation during 
Project Mercury was successful; however, it was learned that in flight food and water ingestion 
must be scheduled in mission timelines along with other activities.* The experience gained 
during Project Mercury in food packaging and in-flight handling led to the evolution of the 
more sophisticated Gemini and Apollo food systems. 

Mercury food packaging was experimental and transient. Aluminum tubes were used for 
the semi-solid foods; kraft tubes, plexiglass dispensers and three-ply laminates of clear plastic 
films were used for various food items.* No food stowage compartment was provided in Mercury 
spacecraft, therefore, the food supply was included among other necessities in the astronaut's 
ditty bag.* 

The bite-size food concept provided for the Mercury flights was handicapped because of 
the 43°C three-hour stability requirement which resulted in the need to employ a high melting 
point (58°C) fat for a coating. These coatings were applied in an effort to control the formation 
of free-floating crumbs during flight. The coatings proved to be unpalatable and digestibility 
trials demonstrated that these coatings were poorly absorbed in the gut and could result in 
a steatorrhea. 


*A.D. Catterson, E.P. McCutcheon, H.A. Minners, and R.A. Pollard, Aeromedical Observations, 
in Mercury Project Summary Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight May 15 and 

16, 1963, NASA SP-45, 1963,315. 

*C.A. Berry, Aeromedical Preparations, in Mercury Project Summary Including Results of 
the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight May 15 and 16, 1963, NASA SP-45, 1963, 203. 

*E.A. Nebesky, G.L. Schulz, and F.J. Rubinate, Packaging for space flights. Activities Report, 

17, 32-36, 1965. 

*P.A. Lachance, Development of stored food and water systems. Environmental Biology and 
Medicine, Vol. 1,pp 205—228, 1971, with Appendix A — Nutrient composition of space flight 
foods, M.V. Klicka and M.H. Thomas. 


7 





The Food Systems for Gemini Flights 


The first manned flight of the Gemini program, Gemini 3, lasted less than five hours, 
but four experimental meals were aboard to test a new, more complex, all dehydrated food 
system. The longer planned length of the subsequent missions (2 to 14 days) not only required 
a much more sophisticated approach but also required careful menu planning to conform to 
spacecraft stowage, weight, and volume constraints. The nutrient content of the foods and 
dietary intake were significant parameters of mission success. 

The original Gemini food system concept was based on four meals per man per day and 
was followed only for the four-day mission of Gemini 4. The more critical stowage constraints 
of Gemini 5 (8 days) and Gemini 7 (14 days) necessitated minimizing food volume, and the 
consequent reduction permitted only three meals a day. Preferred by the astronauts, this 
three-meal pattern was adopted for the balance of the Gemini flights and for Apollo and Skylab. 
Two-, three-, and four-day menu cycles were used on Gemini flights. Except on the Gemini 4 
and Gemini 8 missions, the Gemini crew members were provided identical menus which 
permitted overwrapping of meal pairs. On Gemini 4 and Gemini 8, astronaut preference 
adjustments necessitated component changes and the overwrapping of a number of individual 
meals. 

Extensive testing at the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force 
Base and the School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base ascertained that diets 
composed exclusively of dehydrated food could be highly acceptable, digestible, efficiently 
utilized and capable of maintaining positive nitrogen balance.’"* * In these studies the 
technology of freeze-dehydration as a means of food preservation (pioneered for military ration 
use) was employed to assure acceptable products which would reconstitute in the ambient 
temperature water available aboard Gemini. These were the first human feeding trials which 
verified that the feeding of freeze-dehydrated foods was physiologically equivalent to the feeding 
of routine diets. These studies also verified the acceptability of such foods using ambient 
temperature water. On Gemini only ambient temperature water was available. 


’J.E. Vanderveen, K.J. Smith, E.W. Speckmann, G. Kitzes, and A.E. Prince, Protein, energy, 
and water requirements of man under simulated space stresses, in Conference on Nutrition 
in Space and Related Waste Problems, NASA SP-70, 1964, 373-378. 

*E.W. Speckmann, K.J. Smith, J.E. Vanderveen, G.M. Homer, and D.W. Dunco, Nutritional 
acceptability of a dehydrated diet, Aerosp. Med., 36, 256—260, 1965. 

’K-J. Smith, Nutritional evaluation of a precooked dehydrated and bite-size compressed food 
diet as a sole source of nutriment for six weeks, AMRL—TR—66—3, 30 pp., 1966. 

'"K.J. Smith, E.W. Speckmann, P.A. Lachance, and D.W. Dunco, Nutritional evaluation of 
a precooked dehydrated diet for possible use in aerospace systems. Food Technol., 20,101—105, 
1966. 


8 








Each Gemini meal contained from four to seven servings of food. These were provided 
in bite-size form (as compressed 1.9-cm cubes or as freeze-dried rectangulars, usually 2.5 cm 
by 2.9 cm by 1.9 cm high) designed for direct consumption or as rehydratables. The bite-size 
foods included meats, bread, dessert and confection items. A few bite-size foods, e.g. bacon 
squares and fruit cake were high enough in moisture content to qualify as intermediate moisture 
foods - foods in which '.tability is achieved primarily by adjusting water activity. 

The number of bi';a-size units included in a serving varied in accordance with astronaut 
preferences and by mission — being either 4, 6 or 8. 

The rehydratable foods included dry mixes and freeze-dried products which reconstituted 
to familiar beverages, puddings, soyps, entrees, fruits and vegetables. Approximately 726 grams 
of packaged food providing up to 29(X) kcal (12,000 kJ) were provided for each crew member 
each day. The volume provided for food stowage was restricted to 2130 cubic centimeters 
(cm^) per crew member per day. The three meal per day diet was designed to provide 16-17 
percent total calories from protein, 30—32 percent from fat and 50—54 percent from 
carbohydrate.” The uniform shape, high caloric density and flavor variety of the bite-size 


* ‘ B.J. Katchman, G.M. Homer, and D. Dunco, The biochemical, physiological and metabolic 
evaluation of human subjects wearing pressure suits and on a diet of precooked dehydrated 
foods, AMRL-TR-67-8, 51 pp, 1967. 

”C.A. Linder and V.R. Must, The effect of repetitive feedings on the acceptability of selected 
metabolic diets, AMRL-TR-66-75, 8 pp, 1967. 

”N.D. Heidelbaugh, J.E. Vanderveen, M.V. Klicka, and M.J. O'Hara, Study of man during 
a 56-day exposure at 258 mm Hg total pressure: VIII. Observations on feeding bite-size 
foods, Aerosp. Med., 37, 583—590, 1966. 

' ^ J.E. Vanderveen, N.D. Heidelbaugh, and M.J. O'Hara, Study of man during a 56-day exposure 
to an oxygen-helium atmosphere at 258 mm Hg total pressure IX, Nutritional evaluation of 
feeding bite-size foods, Aerosp. Med., 37, 591—594, 1966. 

”R.E. Chapin, R.S. Kronenberg, M.J. O'Hara, D.C. Loper and J.E. Vanderveen, Nutritional 
evaluation of foods developed for aerospace operations I. A diet composed of bite-size and 
rehydratable foods. Presented at the 38th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical 
Association, Washington, DC, April 1967. 

'*M.J. O'Hara, R.E. Chapin, N.H. Heidelbaugh, and J.E. Vanderveen, Aerospace feeding: 
Acceptability of bite-size and dehydrated foods, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc.. 51, 246—250, 1967. 

”C.S. Huber, M.C. Smith, and M.V. Klicka, Space foods, in Health and Food, G.G. Birch, 
L.F. Green, and L.G. Plaskett, Eds., Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1972, 
130-151. 












BREADS 


SANDWICHES 


MEATS 


CHEESE & CRACKERS 


BACON 


CONFECTIONS 


CEREALS 


BROWNIES 


DATE FRUITCAKE 


ICE CREAM 


PEANUT CUBES 


ORANGE 


STRAWBERRY 


Bite size space foods — Gemini 


VEGETABLES 


Rehydratable space foods — Gemini. The tablet attached to each 
rehydratable package is an anti-microbial agent — Squinolinol sulphate — 
used for waste stabilization. 


10 
























foods made them ideally suited for the engineering requirements of space flight. However, 
they were less well liked than the rehydratable products due in part to their texture and 
dryness.'"'” Thus, all Gemini menus utilized a combination of bite-size and rehydratable 
fo^s with rehydratables supplying at least 50 percent, and as high as 68 percent, of the total 
number of servings of food supplied.*®"*® 

Frequently difficulties in the handling, preparation, or consumption of the foods used 
were surfaced only through in-flight experience. Every effort was made to solve the problems 
before the food was offered again.**'*’ However, this dynamic process resulted in variable 
product formulations and corresponding changes in nutrient content. For example, a number 
of bite-size foods had to be altered to control crumb problems. Problems occurring in Project 


'"R.A. Nanz, E.L. Michel, and P.A. Lachance, Evolution of a space feeding coricept for Project 
Gemini, NASA TM X-51697, 1964. 

”R.A. Nanz, E.L. Michel, and P.A. Lachance, Evolution of space feeding concepts during 
the Mercury and Gemini space programs. Food Technol., 21, 1596—1602, 1967. 

*®M.V. Klicka, H.A. Hollender, and P.A. Lachance, Foods for Astronauts,J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 
51, 238-245, 1967. 

*'P.A. Lachance and C.A. Berry, Luncheon in space, Nutr. Today, 2 (2), 2-11, 1967. 

**R.A. Nanz, P.A. Lachance, and M.V. Klicka, Food consumption on Gemini IV, V and VII 
missions, NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA TM X—58010, October 1967. 

**H.A. Hollender, M.V. Klicka, and P.A. Lachance, Space feeding: Meeting the challenge. 
Cereal Sci. Today, 13, 44—48, 1968. 

**M.V. Klicka, P.A. Lachance and H.A. Hollender, Space feeding. Activities Report 20, 53—72 
1968. 

*®P.A. Lachance, M.V. Klicka, and H.A. Hollender, Space feeding: Cereal products utilized 
in the US manned space program. Cereal Sci. Today, 13, 49—54, 70, 1968. 

'‘S.E. Stone, Gemini flight food qualification testing: requirements and problems. Activities 
Report, 17, 37-43, 1965. 

*’H.A. Hollender, M.V. Klicka, and M.C. Smith, Food technology problems related to space 
feeding, in COSPAR Life Science and Space Research, VIII, North — Hollarxf Publ. Co., 1970 
265-279. 


11 





r 


Mercury had resulted in the routine application of coatings to the bites to minimize the hazard 
of crumbs and greasiness or stickiness. Attempts at correction of the problems with these 
coatings resulted in five different coating changes for some bite-size foods (e.g., sandwiches). 
These coatings remained in the space food inventory throughout Project Gemini. An in-flight 
biomedical experiment measuring calcium and nitrogen balance was conducted on the 
fourteen-day mission of Gemini 7. The primary objective of this experiment was to obtain 
data on the effects of space flight on the skeletal and muscular systems.^In support 
of this study, fruit flavored beverages and applesauce on the Gemini 7 menus were fortified 
with calcium lactate to assure the desired supply of approximately 1 gram of calcium per 
day. Generally 1.1 gram of calcium lactate (201 mg of calcium) was added to a 21-gram 
(dry weight) serving of beverage powder or 35-gram serving of applesauce. The use of beverages 
fortified with calcium lactate continued throughout the remaining Gemini missions and for 
all Apollo missions. 

All Gemini food was vacuum-packaged in a clear, 4-ply flexible plastic laminate comprised 
of an inner and outer layer of polyethylene with fluorohalocarbon and polyester layers between. 
The rehydratable packages contained a one-way spring loaded valve which was opened by an 
interfacing water dispenser for rehydration. At the opposite end of the package was the feeding 
tube comprised of polyethylene tubing. The astronaut consumed the meal through this feeding 
tube by squeezing the food into his mouth. The meal overwrap was a polyolefin-aluminum 
foil-polyester film. 


The Food Systems for Apollo Flights 

The initial Apollo Food System was based on the dehydrated foods perfected for the 
Gemini program; however, greater attention was focused on astronaut preferences which resulted 
in greater menu variation. Also hot water (65° ± 5°C) was available for food rehydration 


^*See reference 6. 

^’See reference 22. 

Mack, G.P. Vose, F.B. Vogt, and P.A. Lachance, Experiment M—6, bone demineralization, 
in Gemini Midprogram Conference, NASA SP—121, 1966, 407—415. 

G.D. Whedon, L. Lutwak, W.F. Neuman, and P.A. Lachance, Experiment M—7, calcium and 
nitrogen balance, in Gemini Midprogram Conference, NASA SP—121, 1966, 417—421. 

^ ^ J.M. Reid, L. Lutwak, and G.D. Whedon, Dietary control in the metabolic studies of Gemini 7 
space flight, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 53, 342—347, 1968. 

^^L. Lutwak, G.D. Whedon, P.A. Lachance, J.M. Reid, and H. Lipscomb, Mineral electrolyte 
and nitrogen balance studies of the Gemini VM 14-day orbital space flight, J. Clin. 
Endocrinol. Metab., 29, 1140—1156, 1969. 


12 







MEAL B 


MEAL C 


MEAL A 


2-MAN MEAL OVERWRAPS 


Project Gemini 2-man meal overwraps 



APOLLO MEALi 


TOASTED BREAD CUBES 


SAUSAGE PATTIES 


PEACHES 


CHEWING GUM 


ORANGE DRINK 


SUGAR COATED CORNFLAKES 


An early Apollo flight meal 


13 











, FRANKFURTERS ^ 


BEEF & GRAVY » 


Thermostabilized meats — popular with Apollo astronauts 



Thermostabilized wet meat product — 
introduced on Apollo 8 flight menu 



"Spoon-bowl" package used for 
rehydratables following Apollo 8 
flight 


14 







in the Command Module. Water in the Lunar Module was at ambient cabin temperature. 
The long interval (almost two years) which occurred between the last Gemini mission (Gemini 
12) and the first manned Apollo mission (Apollo 7) due to the spacecraft fire in January 
1967 allowed time for improvements in product formulations and resulted in the development 
of an increased variety of both bite-size and rehydratable foods. USAF C—135 aircraft flying 
Keplarian trajectories to simulate brief periods of null gravity were used to verify that a 
conventional spoon could be used to consume most foods in null gravity environntents.’* The 
use of a spoon began with Apollo 8 with the introduction of flexibly packaged thermostabilized 
foods — called "wet packs" — to the Apollo menus. The packages for rehydratable foods, 
excepting beverages, were subsequently redesigned to adapt to the more normal use of a spoon. 
With each subsequent Apollo mission, the menu variety was improved and increased. 
Intermediate moisture fruits were introduced on Apollo 9. Intermediate moisture confections 
were added on later missions. Fresh bread was provided on Apollo 10 when NASA, for the 
first time, deviated from its requirement for full vacuum-packaging and allowed packaging under 
a partial pressure of nitrogen. Sandwich spreads (thermostabilized) initially packaged in 
aluminum tubes and later in rigid aluminum cans accompanied the bread. To control mold 
on the fresh bread furnished on Apollo missions 12 through 17, the bread was produced using 
irradiated flour (flour exposed to 50,000 rad of cobalt gamma irradiation).^^ Additionally, 
for the last three Apollo missions the bread was given a second post baking irradiation treatment 
(also 50,000 rad). Flexibly packaged radappertized ham (ham sterilized by ionizing radiation) 
was included on the final Apollo 17 menus.^^ 

A new approach to menu planning was accomplished with the Apollo 11 mission in that 
the crew was allowed the flexibility to plan some of their menus in flight. Approximately 
half of the packaged food supplied was overwrapped into planned one-man meals. The remaining 
foods were stowed loose, pantry style, in their primary package without assembling 
(overwrapping) into meals. This gave the crew the option of varying their meal selections.^'' 


^^R.L. Flentge, A.C. Grim, F.F. Doppelt, and J.E. Vanderveen, How conventional eating 
methods were found feasible for spacecraft. Food TechnoL, 25, 51-54, 1971. 

^^T.E, Hartung, L.B. Bullerman, R.G. Arnold, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Application of low dose 
irradiation to a fresh bread system for space flights, J. Food Sci., 38, 129—132, 1973. 

^‘M.V. Klicka, Space foods and their development, in Encyclopadia of Food Technology, 
Johnson, A.H. and Peterson, M.S., (Eds.) The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1974, 
828-840. 


’^M.C. Smith, N.D. Heidelbaugh, P.C. Rambaut, R.M. Rapp, H.O. Wheeler, C.S. Huber, and 
C.T. Bourland, Apollo food technology, in Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP-368, R.S. 
Johnston, L.F. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 1975, 437-468. 






15 







APOLLO CONFECTIONS 


IV'6” CUBES 


CHOCOLATE 


COCONUT , JELLIED FRUIT BITES 


CARAMEL 


CHOCOLATE 


PEANUT 


STRAWBERRY 


SWEET CHOCOLATE 
with ALMONDS 


CARAMEL TYPE 


Apollo confections 


Apollo food storage compartment 


16 






The first meal after launch in Apollo consisted of a frozen sandwich, which was prepared 
and packaged under Apollo system quality control and stowed for easy access in a pocket 
of each crew member's flight suit. 

With few exceptions, all foods used during the Apollo program were analyzed for nitrogen, 
fat, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and magnesium content 

Foods consumed out of planned menu sequence and those which were not included in 
the programmed menus (snacks) were recorded in flight logs. Furthermore, on all Apollo flights 
most food residue and unopened food packages were returned; the residue was weighed to 
provide more information on flight consumption and to verify in-flight logging procedures. 
Thus NASA was able to determine the nutrient intake of each crew member on each Apollo 
mission. The average intakes ranged from a low of 1350, 1260, and 1250 kcal (5643, 5267, 
and 5225 kJ) per day for the Commander, Command Module pilot, and iurtar module pilot, 
respectively, on the Apollo 10 mission to a high of 2903,2482, and 2572 kcal (12,134,10,456 
and 10,751 kJ) per day for the respective Apollo 15 crew memben. Mean caloric intake 
for the Apollo program was 1877 ± 415 kcal (7854 ± 1735 kJ).’*'” Flight surgeons at 
Mission Control in Houston detected cardiac arrhythmias in two crew members during the 
Apollo 15 mission. These arrhythmias were suspected of being linked to potassium deficits 
and excessive workloads.*** Metabolic studies were conducted on Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 
and the input and output of various elements, particularly potassium, were carefully examined 
in the Apollo 16 balance study and a detailed assessment of energy metabolism was made.*' 
The metabolic studies on Apoilo 17 were designed to determine the effect of space flight 
on overall body composition and circulating and excretory levels of certain hormonal 
constituents, thus providing a firmer basis for interpretation of Skylab metaboiic experiments.*^ 


’*P.C. Rambaut, M.C. Smith, P.B. Mack and J.M. Vogel, Skeletal response in Biomedical Results 
of Apollo, NASA SP—368, R.S. Johnston, LF. Dietlein and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 
1975, 303-322. 

*’P.C. Rambaut, M.C. Smith and H.O. Wheeler, Nutritional studies, in Biomodical Results of 
Apollo, NASA SP—368, R.S. Johnston, L.F. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 1975, 
277-302. 

**R.S. Johnston and W.E. Hull, Apollo missions, in Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA 
SP-368, R.S. Johnston, LF. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 1975, 9-40. 

*'P.C. Johnson, P.C. Rambaut, C.S. Leach, Apollo 16 bioenergetic considerations, Nutr. 
Metabol., 16, 119-126, 1974. 

*^N.D. Heidelbaugh, M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, L. Lutwak, C.S. Huber, and C.R. Stadler, 
Clinical nutrition applications of space food technology, J. Am. Dietat. Aawc., 62, 383—389, 
1973. 


t- 




17 








APOLLO MEALS 


Apollo meal overwrap 


Thermostabilized sandwich spreads used on Apollo menu 




m 


N, 




.. . 


18 








For both missions nutrient intake information was obtained for 72 hours before flight 
and approximately 48 hours after flight. For the Apollo 17 mission a five-day metabolic balance 
was performed approximately two months before the mission by using the fli^t menus and 
collecting urine and fecal wastes. In the analysis of the balance study performed for Apollo 17, 
mission inflight metabolic data were compared with those obtained during the preflight study. 
For both Apollo 16 and 17 the potassium intakes were maintained above normal ground-based 
intakes. To accomplish this, beverage powders were fortified with potassium gluconate. Ten 
mEq potassium (as 2.35 gm potassium gluconate) added to a serving of the fruit flavored 
beverages, cocoa, and even black coffee was not detectable by trained taste panels using triangle 
sampling techniques.*^ 

Although package designs were modified and improved, all dehydrated and intermediate 
moisture foods on the Apollo menus were packaged in the clear, flexible laminate used on 
Project Gemini. A heat-processable laminated packaging material (modified polyolefin-aluminum 
foil-polyester) was used for most thermostabilized foods. A nonflammable fluorohalocarbon 
film was introduced and used as a meal overwrap material in the Apollo program. 
Thermostabilized salad-type sandwich spreads were packaged in collapsible aluminum tubes 
(Lunar Module) and in aluminum cans (Command Module). 

The Food System for Skylab Missions 

A primary purpose of the Skylab missions was to gather physiological information on 
man's ability to perform during periods of prolonged weightlessness. Nutritional studies designed 
to assess the effects of space flight on nutrition and musculoskeletal function was one of the 
life science investigations intensively pursued during the Skylab program. In brief, these 
experiments consisted of metabolic balance studies designed to quantitate the effects of space 
flight on the rate of gain or loss of the key chemical constituents from the body plus exhaustive 
endocrinological investigations probing those changes in control function which accompany or 
precipitate changes in body composition and fluid and electrolyte metabolism.* 

These experiments consisted of a nutrient input/output measurement on all Skylab 
astronauts commencing 21 days preflight, continuing throughout the inflight phase, and for 
an 18-day period postflight. Sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium, 
energy and water intake were precisely measured within 2%. All fecal material and urine 
samples were returned to Earth for analysis, and samples of blood were taken preflight, inflight, 
and postflight. 

Another objective of Skylab was to test those environmental conditions crucial to optima! 
crew performance. A design goal of the Skylab program was to make the living and working 


*^lbid. 

* Results of Skylab medical experiments are reported in "Biomedical Results from Skylab" 
edited by R.S. Johnston and L.F. Dietlein, NASA SP—377, 1977. (Three specific references 
are cited under supplemental references for 1977.) 


19 



r 






environment comforteble end enjoyable. The type and variety of the food system was 
recognized by NASA as foremost among the life conditions influencing behavior. The need 
for accurate physiological data on the one hand and the objective of improving the habitabiiity 
of the spacecraft on the other hand presanted a significant challanga to the development of 
a food system for Skylab. 

Every effort was made to make the food a positive morale factor and to include maximum 
variety of acceptable foods on the Skylab menus. As a result, 72 baseline foods representing 
six different categories of foods — thermostabilized, frozen, natural state, beverages, 
intermediate moisture, and rehydratable — were chosen following preliminary screening by 
astronauts. Individual menus were developed for each Skylab crew member from these foods, 
and when finalized, each menu was supported by a minimum of five sets of sensory data 
representative of crew acceptance.**'*^ 

A prime constraint for Skylab food was that each food item had to receive a mean 
acceptance rating of 6 or above in astronaut taste panels. A 9-point hedonic scale was used 
for ratings: 9 ^ like extremely, 6 ^ like slightly, 5 ■ neither like nor dislike and 1 > dislike 
extremely. 

Nutritional constraints for the Skylab food system required that each food ingredient be 
quantified so that no single serving of any one food would vary from any other portion of 
that food by more than 2 percent in regard to caiories, protein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, 
magnesium, and potassium. Also the daily menus had to provide a specified quantity of five 
nutrients: prote’m,90 to 125 ± 10 gm, calcium, 750 to 850 ± 16 mg, phosphorus, 1,500 to 
1,700 ±120 mg, sodium, 3,000 to 6,000 ± 500 mg, and magnesium, 300 to 400 ±100 mg, 
plus at least 3,945 mg of potassium.** 

Menus were designed according to 6-day cycles. The menus contained a core set of foods 
which provided the required levels of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, 
and sodium. This core diet was approximately 300 kcals (1255 kJ) less than the caloric 
requirement established for Earth. All additional calories were provided by food items, termed 
"caloric adjustment items," which were low enough in controllable elements so as not to perturb 
the prescribed intake ranges. 


**N.D. Heidelbaugh, M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, T.E. Hartung, and C.S. Huber, Potential public 
health applications of space food safety standards, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 159, 1462—1469, 
1971. 

**C.R. Stadler, D.D. Sanford, J.M. Reid, artd N.D. Heidelbaugh, Skylab menu development, 
J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 62, 390-393, 1973. 

**P.C. Rambaut, N.D. Heidelbaugh, and M.C. Smith, Calcium and phosphorus mobilization 
in man during wei^tless flight. Activities Report, 25, 1-7, 1973. 


20 









The crew was encouraged to consume completely their nominal menu. A system of negative 
reporting was employed such that the crew reported at the end of each day any deviation 
from the nominal menu. The only admissible deviations were the incomplete consumption 
or omission of an item on the nominal menu, the use of an off/nominal rehydration quantity 
or the consumption of a caloric adjustment item. 

To maintain controlled intakes of the required minerals, in conjunction with these possible 
deviations, the cr^ members were also supplied the following mineral supplements: calcium 
lactate (32 mg calcium), orthophosphate (110 mg phosphorus), magnesium lactate (25 mg 
magnesium), sodium chloride (197 mg sodium), and potassium gluconate (195 mg potassium). 

The computer calculated mineral deficits from information transmitted to Earth by the 
crew. The quantity of mineral supplements equivalent to these deficits was calculated in real 
time and transmitted back to the crew. Vitamins were provided both by the food and, in 
the 59-day and 84-day flights, by means of a vitamin supplement containing vitamin A (5000 
lU), vitamin D (500 lU), vitamin E (15 lU), thiamine mononitrate (10 mg), riboflavin (10 
mg), ascorbic acid (313 mg), niacinamide (100 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg), calcium 
pantothenate (20 mg), cyancobalamine (4 mq). and folic acid (33 iig)*’’ 

Special attention was given to the water consumed by the crew during the Skylab mission. 
The water system dispensed water for food and beverage preparation and drinking with an 
accuracy of ± 1 percent. A separate drink dispenser was provided each crewman, it contained 
a recording device for the amount of water dispensed. The water was essentially free of calcium, 
magnesium, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, and sodium. 

The degree of nutrient control for Skylab foods required the careful formulation of each 
food. For many rehydratables it could only be achieved by blending separately dehydrated, 
precooked ingredients. Thus, often the Skylab formulations for a product differed slightly 
from those of the Gemini or Apollo formula. The Skylab food tray had the capability of 
heating three foods in each meal to 65° ± 3.3°C (149° ± 6°F). The remaining four wells 
of the food tray were unheated and remained cool. Silverware was provided for consumption 
of the food. Freezer space on Skylab was limited, thus, each individual was allowed three 
frozen items in any two-day period. All Skylab foods, except beverages, were packaged in 
cans. Three sizes of cans were used with can volume influencing the serving size of the various 
food items. Any given food was available in only one size can. All beverages were packaged 
in collapsible polymeric containers which expanded on reconstitution. All food for the planned 
28 and two 56-day missions* except that food planned for consumption in the Command 
Module at the beginning and end of each mission was launched with the Skylab workshop. 
Thus, it had to be shelf-stable for at least one year under ambient conditions. 


^''M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, and C.R. Stadler, Skylab nutritional studies in COSPAR Life 
Sciences and Space Research, R. Holmquist and A.C. Strickland (Eds.), Volume 15, Pergamon 
Press, Oxford and New York, 1977, 193—197. 

*Actual mission durations were 28, 59, and 84 days. 


21 












Skylab food tray 


Skylab bread 


22 








Skylab packaging - All Skylab foods, except beverages were packaged 
in easy open cans. Primary package for rehydratables was a clear plastic 
pouch with a reconstitution valve attached. 


BEVERAGE CONTAINER 


Skylab expandable beverage container 









Complaints of blandness in the foods on the part of the Skylab 1 crew resulted in the 
Skylab 2 and 3 crews launching with an assortment of condiments such as hot sauce, 
horseradish, pepper,and garlic to supplement the catsup already aboard. The Skylab 3 crew 
launched with a 28'day supply of formulated nutrient’defined, high^density food bars which 
enabled the extension of their flight from the planned SG-day mission to 84 days. 

A flexibly packaged, thermoprocessed fruitcake designed to be nutritionally complete at 
a 2800 kcal (11,700 kJ) level was included in the Skylab food supply as a contingency food. 
NASA approved the consumption of some of this cake only on Christmas Day 1973, as a 
holiday treat. 


The Food System for Apollo-Soyuz Mission 

The Apollo-Soyuz food system maximized menu variety and incorporated the most 
acceptable of the foods developed for Apollo and Skylab within Apollo-Soyuz mission 
constraints; i.e., no freezer or food warmer, limited weight and volume, and limited supply 
(about 300 mLper crew member) of hot (49°C) water. As with each previous NASA program 
several new foods were introduced to the US space food Inventory including one completely 
new food category — freeze-dried, reversibly compressed vegetables. Compressed, freeze-dried 
pea bars (2.5 cm x 7.6 cm x 1.2 cm), requiring only a quarter of the volume of an equal 
weight of freeze-dried peas, and spinach bars (2.5 cm x 7.6 cm x 0.5 cm), requiring only 
1/11th of the volume of an equal weight of freeze-dried spinach, were included on the menus 
chosen by astronauts Stafford and Slayton, Both products reconstituted to full half-cup portions 
which looked and tasted like their frozen counterparts. The technology demonstrated in these 
vegetables can also be applied to meats, cottage cheese, and fruits, as well as other vegetables. 

Developed by the US Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories for use by 
the Armed Forces under conditions where space, weight and/or volume are critical (e.g. 
submarine and field feeding), this new class of compressed foods shows potential for wide 
application to future space feeding. 

Reconstitution of reversibly compressed, freeze-dried green vegetables which have been 
given an extended blanch prior to freeze drying, and compressed, precooked, freeze-dried, diced 
chicken, beef, or pork requires only soaking in hot water. Even products such as compressed 
shredded carrots and cottage cheese reconstitute quickly in cool water. During reconstitution, 
these products pick up most of the water removed during dehydration; and also return to 
their original piece-sizes, shapes, and textures. 

Recently, this new compression technology has also been successfully applied to entrees — 
meat and vegetables or meat and rice combinations, instant puddings, and even sweetened 
dehydrated drinks. For the military user, the fact that these compressed foods can be eaten 
dry or reconstituted makes them particularly adaptable to emergency/assault feeding use. The 
fact that they provide maximum and acceptable nutrition in minimum space and weight will 
also appeal to those responsible for the logistical support of future space stations. 

Four radappertized meats (meats sterilized by ionizing radiation) were included on the 
Apollo-Soyuz menu: ham slices, corned beef, turkey slices and a char-broiled beef steak. The 


24 









Compressed dehydrated spinach and peas included on Apollo-Soyuz 
menu — shown dry and rehydrated 



SMOKEO TUHHtr SLICCS 


BEEF STEAK 


COAWED BEEF 



25 









radappertized char-broiled beef steak was also seiected by one of the Russian cosmonauts 
(Aleksey A. Leonov) for his U.S. exchange meal. The raddeppertized meats furnished NASA 
for Apollo-Soyuz use were prototypes of products under development for potential Armed 
Forces use. Although shelf stable without refrigeration, the taste, texture^ and overall quality 
of these irradiated meets is comparable to that of their freshly cooked counterparts. 

The slices of commercially produced bread furnished the Apollo-Soyuz crew were packaged, 
frozen, irradiated (50,(X)0 rad), and held frozen until stored aboard the space craft. 

Dehydrated and intermediate moisture foods were packaged in the Apollo spoon-bowl 
packages and/or pouches. Wet products were packaged in the flexibly laminated film as used 
on Project Apollo or in the cans used in the Skylab food system. A modified Apollo beverage 
package was used. 


Microbiological Constraints 

The possibility of increesed susceptibility to infection and increased virulence of 
microorganisms under conditions encountered in manned spaceflight required the establishment 
of strict microbiological requirements and extraordinary production methods for space foods. 
These were consistent with the state of the art. Accordingly, the following microbiological 
requirements for Apollo dehydrated space foods were established in 1964: aerobic plate count, 
not greater than 10,(X)0/g; total conforms, not greater than 10/g; fecal conforms, negative in 
one gram; fecal streptococci, rot greater than 20/g; coagulase positive staphylococci, negative 
in 5 grams; and salmonella, negative in 10 grams.*' 

Skylab food microbiological requirements were established for the first flight in 1973.** 
The requirements were classified into two categories: those for foods which were 
thermostabilized in metal cans and those for all other Skylab foods. Thermostabilized foods 
were tested for sterility by first incubating sealed cans at 32° and 55°C, followed by 
microbiological examination of the cans to detect microbial growth which nwy have occurred 
without gas production (evidenced by swelling of the cans) during the incubation phase. 
Microbiological requirements for all other Skylab foods were similar to those established for 
dehydrated Apollo foods, with the following exceptions: the coliform and fecal coliform 
requirements were replaced by an Escherichia coU count (negative per gram); fecal streptococci 
limits were deleted artd requirements for C. perfringens (not greater than 100/g) and yeast 
and mold counts (not greater than 100/g) were added. 


*'H.M. El'Bisi, Microbiological requirements of space food prototypes. Activities Report, 17, 
54-61, 1965. 

**N.D. Heidelbaugh, D.B. Rowley, E.M. Powers, C.T. Bourland and J.L. McQueen, 
Microbiological testing of Skylab focxls, Appl. Microbiol., 25, 55-61, 1973. 


26 





The aerobic plate count (APC) served as an index of sanitary processing as w«ll as proper 
storage and transportation of food products. Of the food surveyed in 1968 and 1969, 93% 
had APCs less than ID.IXM/g.^** The yeast and mold requirements supplemented the APC 
and limited spacecraft contamination. All foods examined had low counts, which were well 
within test limits. 

The presence of conforms in processed foods is a useful indicator of post processing 
contamination. Fecal coliforms are a more specific indicator of fecal contamination because 
of the high incidence of E. coli within the group. Recovery of E. coli from foods implies 
that pathogens and other organisms of fecal origin may be present. Of the Apollo foods tested, 
98% had less than 10 coliforms/g, and 99% were negative for fecal coliforms. All Skylab 
foods were negative for £. coH. Because E. coli is not a perfect indicator, requirements for 
specific pathogens, namely, salmonellae and coagulase positive staphylococci, were selected. 
None of the Skylab foods were positive for these two pathogens. Tests for C. perfringens 
were performed on Skylab foods which required warming prior to consumption arxl in which 
it was judged that C. perfringens might be present. The organism was not found in any of 
the foods tested.^' 

Microbiological examination of Apollo and Skylab foods demonstrated that all the 
microbiological requirements were satisfied. However, the microbiological indices and test 
procedures selected comprised only one segment of the total food safety system. Equally 
important elements of this safety system which were essential to attainment of the established 
test limits included strict criteria and procedures for raw materials, storage, processing, 
transportation, and personnel monitoring. 

Problems and Findings of the Various Space Flight Food Experiments 

A brief summary of a succession of problems studied in the various flights is provided 
in Table 1. 


^"E.M. Powers, C. Ay, H.M. El-Bisi, and D.B. Rowley, Bacteriology of dehydrated space foods, 
Appl. Microbiol., 22, 441-445, 1971. 

^' See reference 49. 


27 








Can a spoon be used to consume food? b. A spoon can be used for all foods except 

beverages and thin soups. 






Inventory of U.S. Space Foods 


An inventory of the foods included on the final Mercury flight and on the Gemini, Apollo, 
Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz menus is provided in Appendix A, Table A-1, Foods and Food 
Supplements Included on U.S. Space Flight Menus, in viewr of the transient and experimental 
nature of many of the earliest space foods. Project Mercury 6, 7 and 8 menus are not included 
in this table. For convenience and to facilitate pianning future space flight or space station 
menus, the 220 foods have been grouped into 11 major menu use categories - entrees, soups, 
fruits and vegetables, bread and crackers, cereals, spreads, condiments, desserts, beverages, 
confections, nuts and srtacks and high-density food bars. As appropriate, each category of 
food is subclassified by type of food, nameiy bite-size, rehydratable, thermo-stabilized, natural 
form, irradiated, frozen, intermediate moisture and baked (natural form). The foods are listed 
alphabetically under each subclassification. The unit weight or portion size, principal ingredients 
and processing procedures cited in Table A-1 reflect those cited in the latest production guides, 
specifications, or product descriptions. 


Conclusions 

The foods used on US space flights have been comprised of a wide variety of natural 
foods which have been specially processed and/or packaged to adapt them to null gravity 
consumption and other mission constraints. However, a 28-day supply of nutritionally defined 
formulated foods was also utilized on the final Skylab mission. Called high density food ban, 
9 different flavored or formulated products were launched with the Skylab 3 crew. These 
supplemental bars were consumed every third day in lieu of the planned Skylab menus composed 
of conventional foods and made it possible for NASA to extend the planned 56-day mission 
to 84 days. 

However, if the following observations made by Edward G. Gibson, a crew member of 
the final 84-day Skylab flight, are heeded, nutritionally defined formulated foods such as these 
will not be utilized extensively in planning future diets for routine space missions: "We 
experienced hunger on two different occasions because of the types of diet we were on. In 
order to extend our mission from 56 to 84 days, we supplemented our meals with high density 
food bars every third day. During those days, we had the same amount of minerals and number 
of calories as we had on other days, but the amount of food was greatly reduced so we ended 
up fairly hungry on every third day . . . Another effect of the food was from the Mineral 
Balance experiment M071. It was a worthwhile experiment, but it certainly did have its impact 
on the food system. In the future, we'd like to see a food system where there would be 
more flexibility of choice in what one wants to eat, when one wants to eat it, and how one 
wants to season it. An open pantry versus a preplanned rigid diet such as we had would 
be an optimum situation from the crew operational standpoint".^ ^ 


^^E.G. Gibson, Skylab 4 crew observations in Biomedical Results from Skylab, R.S. Johnston, 
and L.F. Oietlein, Eds. 1977, 27. 




The comments of Dr. Joseph P. Keiwin, the Scientist Pilot in Skyleb 2 and the first 
U.S. physician astronaut in space, are also of interest to the planners of future ^Joce diets. 
These are: 'To me, the most astonishing thing was our ability and desire to peek in the 
groceries, and there's a long preflight history to that. We fought and scratched with the Principal 
Investigators on that diet for 4 or 5 years. We finally settled on an in-flight diet estimation, 
which kind of went like this: We had several 6-day periods of food intake measurement prior 
to the flight. These data were taken and ware modified by certain standard height/weight/surfaoe 
area tables, and so forth, to get a best estimate of our average caloric intake, and then we 
subtracted 300 kilocalories from that. Most of us ware certain that even that anuMjnt of 
food was going to be too great. And lo and baholdl We discovered that after a days 
of decreased appetite in flight we were able to eat all our food. Indeed, as th> sions 
progressed the amount of food the crew was allowed to eat increased and their exercise increased, 
they were essentially eating the same amount of food as they ate on the ground. That to 
me is a mystery. I still don't understand how in an environment in which certainly muscular 
work is reduced, the caloric demand and the relationship between caloric intake and body 
weight remain just about the same as they do on the ground, I think that's a very interest. 
problem that we haven't yet been able to solve".*’ 


*’J.P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 crew observations and summary, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, 
R.S. Johnston, and L.F. Dietlein, Eds. 1977, 28. 


31 





33 







MAIN ASPECTS OF 
FOOD SYSTEMS FOR 
SHUTTLE FLIGHTS 


FOODS 

Appetizing, wholaiome. nutritious convenience foods, light in 
weight and low in volume. Types of foods include: thermo- 
stabilized, rehydratable, irradiated, natural form, and intermediate 
moisture. 


FOOD PACKAGING 

Operational missions, OPS, (beginning with the fifth shuttle 
mission) will use one package for rehydratable foods and 
beverages. It will have an injection molded base with a 
thermoformed flexible lid. It will use a needle-septum concept 
for reconstitution. The Orbital Flight Tests, OFT, (first four 
shuttle missions) are using the types of packaging and water 
dispensing systems used in Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz Test 
Project missions. 


FOOD PREPARATION 

OPS missions will use a galley system having a food preparation 
area, a semi-automatic r^ydration unit and a convection oven. 

— A hot water heater will be a component of the galley facility. 
The OFT missions, having no galley or water heater, use a portable 
food warmer to heat reconstituted foods and beverages. 

RESTRAINTS 

The food lockers, located near the spacecraft electronic gear, may 
reach temperatures above 32°C (SO^F). This limits dte type of 

— foods which can be used. Food package design and hardware 
must still function in zero gravity; liquids must still be fully 
contained at all times. 


MENUS 

I Menu is a standard menu instead of the personal preference menu 
I used on earlier missions. A pantry is provided to supplement 
^ the menu. The menu provides 3(X)0 kilocalories per day. A 
6-day menu cycle will be used for the OPS missions; a 4-day 
menu cycle on the OFT missions. 


34 






ADDENDUM 


The Food Systems for Shuttle Flights® ^ ® ‘ 

When the space shuttle Orbiter Columbia was launched on its first flight into space on 
12 April 1981 and landed safely 54% hours later, a new and important advance in man's 
exploration of space was initiated. Columbia's second flight, 12—14 November 1981 confirmed 
the reusability of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, a basic objective of this space shuttle project. 
This new spacecraft is designed to tran'sport into Earth orbit a crew of seven for 30 days and 
a payload of 30 tons. It will have its own unique food system. That system insofar as it 
has been designed and developed is briefly summarized opposite.. The requirements of this 
system are different from those of previous U.S. space missions. 

Goal. The goal of the work on the shuttle food system, as for previous missions, is 
to provide crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious, and convenient food that is light 
in weight and low in volume. This objective must be achieved within many of the same 
biological, operational and engineering constraints which influenced development of the feeding 
systems for earlier missions. However, the improved environmental conditions in the Shuttle 
Orbiter, principally the elimination of the oxygen enriched atmosphere used on previous 
spacecraft and a nominal ambient cabin pressure of 15 psi, have allowed NASA to relax some 
of the food packaging constraints imposed on earlier flights. They have also supported NASA's 
consideration of cost effective alternatives to the custom order mositure>vapor- and gas-barrier 
packaging films and intensive packages used on earlier missions. 

According to Bouriand et the new space food system will be introduced on the 
fifth shuttle mission — the first Operational Mission (OPS). The changes will include a 
redesigned package for rehydratables and a new galley. The new rehydration package will 
have an injection molded base with a thermoformed flexible lid and will use a needle-septum 
cortcept for rehydration. One package will be used for both rehydratable foods and beverages. 
Automated production and more readily available materials will reduce the cost of space food 
packaging. The galley system has a food preparation area, a semi-automatic rehydration unit 
and a convection oven. The time required to add water to the packages has been reduced 
to 3—5 minutes. Foods for space flights are purchased in lots and held at 4°C (40° F) until 
one to two months before a scheduled flight when they are transferred to flight packages. 


®*C.T. Bouriand, M.F. Foley, R.M. Rapp, and R.L. Sauer, Space shuttle food processing and 
packaging, J. Food Protect., Vol. 44, 313—315, April 1981. 

®®C.R. Stadler, C.T. Bouriand, R.M. Rapp, and R.L. Sauer, Food System for Space Shuttle 
Columbia, J. Am. Dietet. Assm., Vol. M, 108—114, February 1982. 

®‘R.L. Sauer and R.M. Ropp, STS-1 Medical Report, NASA TM-58240, S.L. Pool, P.C. 
Johson, Jr., and J.A. Mason, Editors, 54—57, October 1981. 


®''See reference 54. 






A composite photograph of the STS—1 food system is shown. From the 
top, left to right; a locker tray packed with overwrap meals, various 
sizes of flexible foil retort pouches, food being placed in the food warmer; 
center row: beef with vegetables in a spoon-bowl package, food being 
eaten from a spoon-bowl package aboard Columbia, Skylab beverage package, 
bottom row: meal assembled on the serving tray clipped to the mid-deck 
lockers, utensils used on STS—1,and the OFT water dispensing unit. 


36 













FQLYLTHELYLENE DRINKING STRAW 


Shuttle Galley 

The fact that the lockers used for the storage of food aboard the Orbiter are located 
near the spacecraft electronic gear and may reach temperatures above 32.2°C (90°F) does, 
however, limit the types of foods which can be used on shuttle missions. The types of foods 
planned for the space shuttle include: thermostabilized, rehydratable, irradiated, natural form, 
and intermediate moisture. 


The first four missions, called the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT), are being flown without 
a galley and thus are using an interim shuttle food system. The food packages used on Apollo, 
Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project missions are being used with this interim system. Although 
a hot water heater will be a component of the galley, hot water is not available for the OFT; 
therefore, a portable food warmer is being used to heat food for these missions. The list 
of foods and beverages approved for OFT shuttle flight use is furnished as Table 1. Those 
foods preceded by an asterisk are identical to or very similar to foods used on earlier space 
programs — those described in Appendix A, Table A—1. 


The shuttle menu will provide 3000 kilocalories per day. It will be a standard menu instead 
of the personal preference type menu used on previous flights. Diversified crews and projected 
flight frequencies have dictated this approach. A pantry will be provided to supplement the 
menu. Individual crew members will have a voice in the selection of pantry components. 
Table 2 provides the standard OFT menu. Table 3 provides the list of foods supplied in 
the pantry which can be used as snacks or as substitutes for menu items. These pantry foods 
also serve as the contingency food supply. 


37 








Tabte 1. BaMline OFT Shuttit Food and Bawaga Litt 


* Applesauce (T) 

* Apricots, Dried (IM) 

* Asparagus (R) 

Bananas (FO) 

Beef Almondine (R) 

* Beef, Corned (l)(T) 

* Beef and Gravy (T) 

* Beef, Ground w/Pickle Sauce (T) 

* Beef Jerky (IM) 

* Beef Pattie (R) 

* Beef, Slices w/BBQ Sauce (T) 

* Beef Steak (l){T) 

Beef Stroganoff w/Noodles (R) 

* Bread, Seedless Rye (l)(NF| 
Broccoli au Gratin (R) 

» Breakfast Roll (l)(NF) 

Candy, Chocolate Coated 
Candy, Life Savors, Assorted 
Flavor (NF) 

Cauliflower w/Cheese (R) 

* Cereal, Bran Flakes (R) 

* Cereal, Cornflakes (R) 

* Cereal, Granola (R) 

Cereal, Granola w/Blueberrie$ (R) 
Cereal, Granola w/Raisins (R) 

* Cheddar Cheese Spread (T) 

* Chicken ala King |T) 

Chicken and Noodles (R) 

Noodles and Chicken (R) 

* Chicken and Rice (R) 

Chili Mac w/Beef (R) 

* Cookies, Butter 

* Cookies, Pecan (NF) 

* Cookies, Shortbread (NF) 

* Crackers, Graham (NF) 

* Eggs, Scrambled (R) 

Food Bar, Almond Crunch (NF) 
Food Bar, Chocolate Chip (NF) 
Food Bar, Granola (NF) 

Food Bar, Granola/Raisin (NF) 


Green Beans and Broccoli (R) 

Food Bar, Peanut Butter/Granola (NF) 

* Frankfurters (Vienna Sausage) (T) 

* Fruitcake 

* Fruit Cbcktail (T) 

Green Beans, French w/Mushrooms (R) 

* Ham {l)(T) 

* Jam/Jelly (T) 

* Macaroni and Cheese (R) 

* Meatballs w/BBQ Sauce (T) 

* Nuts, Almonds (NF) 

Nuts, Cashews (NF) 

* Nuts, Peanuts (NF) 

* Peach Ambrosia (R) 

* Peaches, Dried (IM) 

* Peaches (T) 

* Peanut Butter 

* Pears (FD) 

* Pears (T) 

Peas w/Butter Sauce (R) 

* Pineapple, Crushed (T) 

* Potato Pattie 

* Pudding, Butterscotch (T) 

* Pudding, Chocolate (R)|T) 

* Pudding, Lemon (T) 

* Pudding, Vanilla (R)(T) 

Rice Pilaf (R) 

* Salmon (T) 

* Sausage Pattie (R) 

Shrimp Creole (R) 

* Shrimp Cocktail (R) 

* Soup, Cream of Mushroom (R) 
Spaghetti w/Meatless Sauce (R) 

* Strawberries (R) 

* Tomatoes, Stewed (T) 

* Tuna (T) | 

* Turkey and Gravy (T) 

* Turkey, Smoked/Sliced (l)(T) 

Turkey, Tetrazzini (R) 

Vegetables, Mixed Italian (R) 


NOTE: Assuming no food warming capability on the Orbiter 
* Foods are identical to or similar to those on earlier space programs. 


Beverages 

Apple Drink 

* Cocoa 

* Coffee, Black 

* Coffee w/Cream 

* Coffee w/Cream and Sugar 

* Coffee w/Sugar 

* Grape Drink 

* Grapefruit Drink 

* Instant Breakfast, Chocolate 
Instant Breakfast, Strawberry 
Instant Breakfast, Vanilla 

* Lemonade 

* Orange Drink 

* Orange-Grapefruit Drink 

* Orange-Pineapple Drink 

* Strawberry Drink 

* Tea 

* Tea w/LjenfH>n and Sugar 

* Tea w/Sugar 
Tropical Punch 

Condiments 

BBQ Sauce 

Catsup 

Mustard 

Pepper 

Salt 

Hot Pepper Sauce 
Mayonnaise 

Abbreviations 

j — Thermostablized 
IM — Intermediate Moisture 
R — Rehydratable 
I — Irradiated 
FD — Freeze-Dried 
NF — Natural Form 


38 








Table 2. Shuttle - Standard OFT Menu 


^ o. ^ 

z OC CD OD 


00 is ^ ^ 

<2 = J m -i 

<? 

^ ,2 -2 CO ifc 

^-^2=5? 

.2 S « c ^ 

w il k. (O k. 

Q 00 O > O 


^ C S' S CD 


« 

o 


S ?| 

^ «D i 

mill 


^ ^ O u- 

K OC ^ U. Z GO 



^ U,_U. LL _ 

rri-ZOCKZZco 


X 

CM 


c 


J> 

a 

a 

(0 

0) 

c 


CD 

a 

■O <« & 

8-S.S 

Q. X 5 o. ^ 
W CM*g ^ S 


S CD 
66 


c 

o 

E 

a> 


c S T8 V "E 

fe I £ £ E 

X a CD CD a 


o « 


^5(3 


w. CO 
CO Q> 


H C X X OC 00 


Ǥ 
1(1^ 
O is 

•ai 
.. 00 


CD 

c 

.2 ^ 

P 3 

Q. 




I 

< CO _ 

- -5 § I 

III! 


K S d: 


X ^ X X OC CD 


a 

3 


« I 


o> 

c 


E ^ 
o 

■S 8 -o 

i|||»! 

•g •“ 5 i2 E _ 

E 1 -g -2 I s 

11 51 i & 

6 I S > ^ H 



£ OC ^ IL 2 CD 


I 1 I I 
I I I I 


I I 
! { 


^ O CL 
H * GC . U. Z CD 





Table 3. Contingency/Pantry Baseline 


^ I CM ^ CM I I I CM 


Icm^cmcmI I IcmcmcmI Icm 



00 ^ I ^ 


1 CM CM 




CM CM CM ^ 


cmcmI I IcmcmcmI I Icmcmcm 


cocmI I ICOCMCOl I ICOCOCM 



'S 

2 

CD 

t;: 


1 




CO 

I 

C/) 


o I I o o o o I o 


CM 

S CO 


00 O O CD 00 00 I o I 


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00 CM 00 CO 00 00 1 o I 


CM 1^ I^COCO IlDinCM ICMCMCMCM^ 




^CM^^ I I 1^ I^CMCMCMCM^^^ 



40 




Shuttle Transportation System 





List of Reforanoes 


Berry, C.A., Aeromedical Preparations, in Mercury Project Summary Including RewIts of the 
Fourth Manned Orbital Flight May 15 and 16, 1963, NASA SP-45, 1963, 203. 

Catterson, A.D., E.P. McCutcheon, H.A. Minners, and R.A. Pollard, Aeromedical Preparations, 
in Mercury Project Summary Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Fli^ May 15 
and 16, 1963, NASA SP-45, 1963, 315. 

Chapin, R.E., R.S. Kronenberg, M.J. O'Hara, D.C. Loper, and J.E. Vanderveen, Nutritional 
evaluation of foods developed for aerospace operations I. A diet composed of bite-size 
and rehydratable foods. Presented at the 38th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace 
Medical Association, Washington, DC, April 1967. 

El-Bisi, H.M., Microbiological requirements of space food prototypes, ActivitieB Report, 17. 
54-61, 1965. 

Flentge, R.L., A.C. Grim, F.F. Doppeit, and J.E. Vanderveen, How conventional eating methods 
were found feasible for spacecraft. Food Technol., 25, 51—54, 1971. 

Gibson, E.G., Skylab 4 crew observations, in Biomedical Results from Skyidb, R.S. Johnston 
and L.F. Dietlein, Eds. 1977, 22-26 

Hartung, T.E., L.B. Bullerman, R.G. Arnold, and N.O. Heidelbaugh, Application of low dose 
irradiation to a fresh bread system for space flights, J. Food Sci., 38, 129—132, 1973. 

Heidelbaugh, N.O., D.B. Rowley, E.M. Powers, C.T. Bourland and J.L. McQueen, 
Microbiological testing of Skylab foods, Appl. Microbiol., 25, 55-61, 1973. 

Heidelbaugh, N.O., M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, T.E. Hartung, and C.S. Huber, Potential public 
health applications of space food safety standards, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 159,1462—1469, 
1971. 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, L. Lutwak, C.S. Huber, and C.R. Stedler, Clinical 
nutrition applications of space food technology, J. Am. Dietst. Assoc., 62. 383—389, 1973. 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., J.E. Vanderveen, M.V. Klicka, and M.J. O'Hara, Study of man during a 
56-day exposure at 258 mm Hg total pressure; VIII. Observations on feeding bite-size 
foods, Aerosp. Med., 37, 583-590, 19^. 

Hollender, H.A., Development of food items to meet Air Force requirements for space travel. 
Technical Documentation Report AMRL—TDR 64—38, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. 1964. 

Hollender, H.A., M.V. Klicka, and P.A. Lachance, Space feeding: Meeting the challenge. Cereal 
Sci. Today, 13, 44-48, 1968. 



Hollender, H.A., M.V. Klicka, and M.C. Smith, Food technology problems related to space 
feeding, in COSPAR Life Science and Space Research. VIII, North - Holland Publ. Co.. 
1970, 265-279. 

Huber, C.S., M.C. Smith, and M.V. Klicka, Space foods, in Health and Food, G.G. Birch, 

L. F. Green, and L.G. Plaskett, Eds., Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1972, 
130-151. 

Johnson. P.C., P.C. Rambaut, C.S. Leach, Apollo 16 bioenergetic considerations, Nutr. Matabol., 
16. 119-126, 1974. 

Johnston, R.S. and W.E. Hull, Apollo missions, in Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP-368, 
R.S. Johnston, L.F. Oietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 1975, 9-40. 

Katchman, B.J., G.M. Homer, and D. Dunco, The biochemical, physiological and metabolic 
evaluation of human subjects wearing pressure suits and on a diet of precooked dehydrated 
foods. AMRL-TR-67-8, 51 pp, 1967. 

Kerwin, J.P., Skylab 2 crew observations and summary, in Biomechcal Results from Skylab, 
R.S. Johnston and L.F. Dietlein, Eds. 1977, 27—29. 

Klicka, M.V., Space foods and their development, in Encyclopedia of Food Technology, 
A.H. Johnson, and M.S. Peterson, (Eds.) The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1974, 
828-840. 

Klicka, M.V., H.A. Hollender, and P.A. Lachance, Foods for Astronauts, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 
51, 238-245, 1967. 

Klicka, M.V., P.A. Lachance, and H.A. Hollender, Space feeding. Activities Report 20, 53—72, 
1968. 

Lachance, P.A., Development of stored food and water systems. Environ. Biol. Med., Vol. 1, 
pp 205-228, 1971, with Appendix A — Nutrient composition of space flight foods, 

M. V. Klicka, and M.H. Thomas. 

Lachance, P.A. and C.A. Berry, Luncheon in space, Nutr. Today, 2 (2), 2—11, 1967. 

Lachance, P.A., M.V. Klicka, and H.A. Hollender, Space feeding: Cereal products utilized in 
the US manned space program. Cereal Sd. Today, 13, 49-54, 70, 1M8. 

Linder, C.A., and V.R. Must, The effect of repetitive feedings on the acceptability of selected 
metabolic diets, AMRL—TR—66—75, 8 pp, 1967. 

Lutwak, L., G.D. Whedon, P.A. Lachance, J.M. Reid, and H. Lipscomb, Mineral electrolyte 
and nitrogen balance studies of the Gemini VII 14-day orbital space flight, J. Clin. Endocrinol. 
Metabol., 29, 1140-1156, 1969. 


42 





Mack, P.B.. G.P. Vose, F.B. Vogt, and P.A. Lachance, Experiment M—6, bone demineralization, 
in Gemini Midprogram Conference, NASA SP—121, 1966, 407—415. 

Michel, E.L., Preparation, handling and storage of foods for present space projects. Conference 
on Nutrition in Space and Related Waste Problems, NASA SP—70, 1964, 57-63. 

Nanz, R.A., P.A. Lachance, and M.V. Klicka, Food consumption on Gemini IV, V and VII 
missions, NASA TM X—58010, October 1967. 

Nanz, R.A., E.L. Michel, and P.A. Lachance, Evolution of a space feeding concept for Project 
Gemini, NASA TM X-51697, 1964. 

Nanz, R.A., E.L. Michel, and P.A. Lachance, Evolution of space feeding concepts during the 
Mercury and Gemini space programs. Food Technol., 21, 1596—1602, 1967. 

Nebesky, E.A., G.L. Schulz, and F.J. Rubinate, Packaging for space flights, Activities Report, 
17, 32-36, 1965. 

O'Hara, M.J., R.E. Chapin, N.D. Heidelbaugh, and J.E. Vanderveen, Aerospace feeding; 
Acceptability of bite-size and dehydrated foods, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 51, 246—250 1967. 

Powers, E.M., C. Ay, H.M. El-Bisi, and D.B. Rowley, Bacteriology of dehydrated space foods, 
Appl. Microbiol., 22, 441-445, 1971. 

Rambaut, P.C., N.D. Heidelbaugh, and M.C. Smith, Calcium and phosphorus mobilization in 
man during weightless flight. Activities Report, 25, 1—7, 1973. 

Rambaut, P.C., M.C. Smith, P.B. Mack, and J.M. Vogel, Skeletal response in Biomedical Results 
of Apollo, NASA SP-36S, R.S. Johnston, L.F. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 
1975, 303-322. 

Rambaut, P.C., M.C. Smith, and H.O. Wheeler, Nutritional studies, in Biomedical Results of 
Apollo, NASA SP—368, R.S. Johnston, L.F. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 
1975, 277-302. 

Reid, J.M., L. Lutwak, and G.D. Whedon, Dietary control in the metabolic studies of Gemini 7 
space flight, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 342—347, 1968. 

Speckmann, E.W., K.J. Smith, J.E. Vanderveen, G.M. Homer, and D.W. Dunco, Nutritional 
acceptability of a dehydrated diet, Aerosp. Med., 36, 256—260, 1965. 

Smith, K.J., Nutritional evaluation of a precooked dehydrated and bite-size compressed food 
diet as a sole source of nutriment for six weeks, AMRL—TR-66—3, 30 pp., 1966. 

Smith, K.J., E.W. Speckmann, P.A. Lachance, and D.W. Dunco, Nutritional evaluation of a 
precooked dehydrated diet for possible use in aerospace systems. Food Technol., 20, 
101-105, 1966. 


43 






Smith, M.C., N.D. Heidelbaugh, P.C. Rambaut, R.M. Rapp, H.O. Wheeler, C.S. Huber, and 
C.T. Bourland, Apollo food technology, in Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP—368, 
R.S. Johnston, L.F. Dietlein, and C.A. Berry, Managing Editors, 1975, 437—468. 

Smith, M.C., P.C. Rambaut, and C.R. Stadler, Skylab nutritional studies in COSPAR Life 
Sciences and Space Research, R. Holmquist, and A.C. Strickland, (Eds.), Volume 15, 
Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, 1977, 193—197. 

Stadler, C.R., D.D. Sanford, J.M. Reid, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Skylab menu development, J. 
Am. Oietet. Assoc., 62, 390-393, 1973. 

Stone, S.E., Gemini flight food qualification testing: requirements and problems. Activities 
Report, 17, 37-43, 1965. 

Vanderveen, J.E., N.D. Heidelbaugh, and M.J. O'Hara, Study of man during a SS-day exposure 
to an oxygen-helium atmosphere at 258 mm Hg total pressure IX, Nutritional evaluation 
of feeding bite-size foods, Aerosp. Med., 37, 591—594, 1966. 

Vanderveen, J.E., K.J. Smith, E.W. Speckmann, G. Kitzes, and A.E. Prince, Protein, energy, 
and water requirements of man under simulated space stresses, in Conference on Nutrition 
in Space and Related Waste Problems, NASA SP—70. 1964, 373—378. 

Whedon, G.D., L. Lutwak, W.F. Neuman, and P.A. Lachance, Experiment M—7, calcium and 
nitrogen balance, in Gemini Midprogram Conference, NASA SP—121, 1966, 417—421. 


Addendum 

C.T. Bourland, M.F. Foley, R.M. Rapp, and R.L. Sauer. Space shuttle food processing and 
packaging, J. Food Protect., Vol. 44, 313—315, April 1M1. 

R.L. Sauer and R.M. Ropp, STS-1 Medical Report, NASA TM—58240, S.L. Pool, P.C. Johson, 
Jr., and J.A. Mason, Editors, 54—57, October 1M1. 

C.R. Stadler, C.T. Bourland, R.M. Rapp, and R.L. Sauer, Food System for Space Shuttle 
Columbia, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., Vol. 80, 108—114, February 1982. 


44 









Supplemental References 


Prior to 1963 

Taylor, A.A. and B. Finkelstein, Preventive medicine aspects of flight feeding. Am. J. Public 
Health, 48, 604-609, 1958. 

Finkelstein, B. and A.A. Taylor, Food, nutrition and the space traveler. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 
8, 793-800, 1960. 


Finkelstein, B., Nutrition research for the space traveler, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 36, 313—317, 
1960. 

Taylor, A.A., B. Finkelstein, and R.E. Hayes, Food for space travel, US AF Report, 
ARDC-TR-60-8, Andrews AFB, 1960. 

Thomas, M.H. and O.H. Calloway, Nutritional evaluation of dehydrated foods, J. Am. Dietet. 
Assoc., 39, 105-116, 1961. 

Schuetze, C.E., W.E. McMahon, L.M. Adams, and W.M. Barnes, Encapsulation of foods. 
Technical Documentary Report No. MRL—TDR—62—53, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, 
19 pp., 1962. 

Roth, N.G. R.B. Wheaton, and H.H. Morris, Control of waste putrefaction in space flight. 
Developments in Industrial Microbiology, 3, NY, Plenum Press, 1962, p. 35. 

1963 

Lachance, P.A. and J.E. Vanderveen, Problems in space foods and nutrition: foods for extended 
space travel and habitation. Food Technol., 17, 567—572, 1963. 

1964 

Calloway, D.H., Nutritional aspects of gastronautics, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 44, 347—352, 1964. 

Hollender, H.A., Discussion: Preparation, handling and storage of foods for present space 
projects, in Conference o't Nutrition in Space and Related Waste Problems, NASA SP—70, 
65-69, 1964. 

Finkelstein, B., Food, in Bioastronautics Data Book, Webb, P., Ed., NASA SP—3006, 1964, 
pp. 191-199. 

Finkelstein, B. and J.J. Symons, Feeding concepts for manned space stations, J. Am. Dietet. 
Assoc., 44, 353-357, 1964. 

Klicka, M.V., Development of space foods, J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 44, 358—361, 1964. 


45 



Roth, N.G. and JJ. Symons, Handling and storage of food for long flints, in Confaranoa 
on Nutrition in Space and Related Watte Problems, NASA SP—70, 1964, 86—91. 

Webb, P., Bioastronautics Data Book, NASA SP—3006, 1964. 

1965 

Calloway, O.H., Nutritional criteria of primary concern to space flight. Activities Report, 17, 
7-10, 1965. 

Finkelstein, B., Pre-flight space feeding. Activities Report, 17, 11—13, 1965. 

Hawley, R.L. and F. Parker, Observations on simulated space feeding experiments. Activities 
Report, 17, 44-53, 1965. 

Hollender, H.A., Technology of space foods. Activities Report, 17, 19—31, 1965. 

Hollender, H.A. and M.V. Klicka, Development of dehydrated and bite size food items, AF 
Technical Report AMRL-TR-65-160, 1965. 

Link, M.M., Space medicine in project Mercury, NASA SP—4003, 1965. 

Miller, S.A., H.A. Dymsza, S.R. Tannenbaum, and S.A. Goldblith, Metabolic studies of energy 
dense compounds for aerospace nutrition, AF Technical Report AMRL—TR—64—121, 1965. 

Tuomy, J.M., Development of dehydrated meat and fish salads for military use. Food Techiwl., 
19, 46-50, 1965. 

1966 

Bustead, R.L. and J.M. Tuomy, Food quality design for Gemini and Apollo space program. 
Presented at 20th Annual Conference of American Society for Quality Control, June 1966. 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., Space flight feeding systems: Characteristics, concepts for improvement 
and public health implications, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 149, 1662—1671, 1966. 

Smith, K.J., E.W. Speckmann, and R.L. Hein, Selected bibliography on the sustenance of man 
in aerospace systems, AMRL—TR—65-234, 70 pp, 1966. 

Klicka, M.V., and H.A. Hollender, Developing space foods. Industry, 32, 26—27 and 61, 1966. 

Klicka, M.V., H.A. Hollender, and P.A. Lachance, Development of space foods, Svanska 
Ekonomiforestandarinnors. Tidskrift No. 1 (Sweden), 1966. 

Lachance, P.A., Nutritional aspects of space feeding. Nutrition Needs, 29 (4), Dec. 1966. 


46 









Margen, S. and D.H. Calloway, Clinical study of minimum protein and caloric requirements 
for man. Annual Report to NASA on NASA Grant NGR—05—003—068 and contract NAS 
9-3966, Sept. 1966. 


1967 

Heidelbaugh, N.D. and M.A. Rosenbusch, A method to manufacture pelletized formula foods 
in small quantities. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Tech. Report SAM—TR—67—75, 
1967. 

Katchman, B.J., G.M. Homer, J.P. Murphy, C.A. Linder, and V. Must, The biochemical, 
physiological and metabolic evaluation of human subjects in a life support systems evaluator 
and on a liquid food diet, AMRL—TR—67—72, 55 pp. 1967. 

Lachance, P.A. and R.A. Nanz, The acceptability of food items developed for space flight 
feeding. Food TechnoL, 21, 1361-1367, 1967. 

Must, V.K., C.A. Linder, D.W. Dunco, K.J. Smith, and E.W. Speckmann, Comparison of 
organoleptic acceptability of liquid and fresh diets, AMRL—TR—65—179, 9 pp, 1967. 

Webb, P., Weight loss in men in space. Science, 155, 558—560, 3 Feb. 1967. 

1968 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., J.E. Vanderveen, and H.G. Iger, Development and evaluation of liquid 
formula foods for aerospace feeding systems, Aerosp. Med., 39, 138—143, 1968. 

1969 

El-Bisi, H.M. and E.M. Powers, The microbiological wholesomeness of space foods. Technical 
Report 70—41—FL, US Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, Mass, June 1969. 

Fischer, C.L., P.C. Johnson, and C.A. Berry, Red blood cell mass and plasma volume changes 
in manned space flight, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 200, 579—583, 1969. 

Mehrlich, F.P. and M.V. Klicka, Food in space. Activities Report, 21, 155—168, 1969. 

Smith Jr., M.C., and C.A. Berry, Dinner on the moon, Nutr. Today, Autumn, 37—42, 1969. 

1970 

Flentge, R.L. and R.L. Bustead, Manufacturing requirements of food for aerospace feeding, 
USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Technical Report, SAM—TR—70—23, Brooks AF Base, 
1970. 

Hollander, H.A. and M.V. Klicka, Feeding man in space. Pr oceedings of die Seventh Annual 
Working Group on Extraterrestrial Resources, NASA SP-229, 1970, 36—49. 


47 




% 



Huber, C.S., Long term space mission requirements, Aerospace Food Technology, NASA 
SP-202, 145-149, 1970. 

KVicka, M.V., Space food development: A review. Activities Report, 22, 63—78, 1970. 

Lachance, P.A. and M.V. Klicka, The use of meat with an extended shelf life in the nutrition 
of the astronaut, in Proceedings of the Meat Industry Research Conference, University of 
Chicago, 26—27 March 1970. 

Smith, M.C., 11ie Apollo food program. Aerospace Food Technology, NASA SP—202, 5—13, 
1970. 

1971 

Bourland, C.T., C.S. Huber, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, The relative effectiveness of 
8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and alkyl dimethyl benzi ammonium chloride in the stabilization 
of aerospace food waste, J. Food Milk Technol., 34, 478—481, 1971. 

Brodinsky, R.L., L.A. Randtelli, W.A. Huller, and L.S. Dewey, Calcium, potassium and iron 
loss by Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 astronauts, Aerosp. Il/M., 42, 621-626, 1971. 

Heidelbaugh, N.D. and M.C. Smith, Potential applications of space food processing environment 
controls for the food industry. Proceedings Food Engineering Forum: Environment and 
the Food Processor, Am. Soc. Agr. Eng., St. Joseph, Michigan, 95—105, 1971. 

Smith, M.C., C.S. Huber, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Apollo 14 food system, Aerosp. Med., 42, 
1185-1192, 1971. 

1972 

Berry, C.A., and M. Smith, What we've learned from space exploration, Nutr. Today, 4—11 
and 29-32, Sept-Oct 1972. 

Bush, W.H., Skylab food system project: Support and management. Activities Report, 33—39, 
1972. 

Rambaut, P.C., C.T. Bourland, N.D. Heidelbaugh, C.S. Huber, and M.D. Smith, Some flow 
properties of foods in null gravity. Food Technol., 26, 58—63, 1972. 

Smith, M.C., P.C. Rambaut, N.D. Heidelbaugh, R.M. Rapp, and H.O. Wheeler, Food and 
nutrition studies for Apollo 16, NASA TM—X—58096, MSC—07195, Oct. 1972. 

1973 

Bannerot, R.B., J.E. Cox, C.K. Chen, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Heating of foods in space vehicle 
environments. Am. Soc. of Mechanical Engineers Publication 73—WA/HT—15, 1973. 




Heidelbaugh, N.D., P.C. Rambaut, and M.C. Smith, Incorporation of nutritional therapy in 
space food systems, Activities Report, 25, 7-23, 1973. 

Ifukielbaugii, N.D., D.B. Rowley, E.M. Powers, C.T. Bourland, and J.S. McQueen, 
Microbiological testing of Skylab foods, Appi. Microbiol., 25, 55—61, 1973. 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., M.C. Smith, and P.C. Rambaut, Food safety in NASA nutrition programs, 
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 163, 1065-1070, 1973. 

Heidelbaugh, N.O., M.C. Smith, P.C. Rambaut, and C. Leach, Space food processing environment 
controls and safety standards, AlCHE Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 
132, 69, 87-90, 1973. 

Huber, C.S., N.O. Heidelbaugh, R.M. Rapp, and M.C. Smith, Nutrition systems for pressure 
suits, Aerosp. Med., 44, 905—909, 1973. 

Rambaut, P.C., N.D. Heidelbaugh, J.M. Reid, and M.C. Smith, Caloric balance during simulated 
and actual space flight, Aerosp. Med., 44, 1264—1269, 1973. 

1974 

Bannerot, R.B., J.E. Cox, C.K. Chen, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Thermal preparation of foods 
in space vehicle environments, Aerosp. Med., 45, 263—268, 1974. 

Bourland, C.T., N.D. Heidelbaugh, C.S. Huber, P.R. Kiser, and D.B. Rowley, Hazard analysis 
of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab food system, J. Milk Food Technol., 37, 624, 628, 
1974. 

Leach, C.S., P.C. Rambaut and P.C. Johnson, Adrenal cortical responses of the Apollo IZcrew 
members, Aerosp. Med., 45, 529—534, 1974. 

Smith, M.C., R.M. Rapp, C.S. Huber, P.C. Rambaut, and N.D. Heidelbaugh, Apollo experience 
report - Food Systems, NASA TN D—7720, July 1974, 66 pp. 

Vogel, J.M., P.C. Rambaut, and M.C. Smith, Bone mineral measurements from Apollo 
experiments M-078, NASA TMX-58110, Jan. 1974. 

1975 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., Industrial applications of space food technology, Underwood-Prescott 
Memorial Lecture, 1975, MIT Press. 

1977 

Bourland, C.T., R.M. Rapp, and M.C. Smith, Space shuttle food system. Food Technol., 31, 
40-45, 1977. 


49 




Michel, E.L, J.A. Rummel, C.F. Sawin, M.C. Buderer, and J.D. Lem, Results of Skylab medical 
experiment M 171 — metabolic activity, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, R.S. Johnston, 
and LF. Dietlein, (Eds.) (NASA SP-377), 1977, 372-387. 

Rambaut, P.C. and M.C. Smith, Nutrition support of space shuttle crews, Nutr. Today, 12, 
6-11 and 28-30, 1977. 

Rambaut, P.C., M.C. Smith, C.S. Leach, G.O. Whedon, and J. Reid, Nutrition and responses 
to zero gravity. Federation Proceedings, 36, 1678—1682, 1977. 

Vogel, J.M., M.W. Whittle, M.C. Smith, and P.C. Rambaut, Bone mineral measurement — 
experiment M 078, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, R.S. Johnston, and L.F. Dietlein, 
(Eds.) (NASA SP-377) 1977, 183-190. 

Whedon, G.O., L. Lutwak, P.C. Rambaut, M.W. Whittle, M.C. Smith, J. Reid, C. Leach, 
C.R. Stadler, and D.D. Sanford, Mineral and nitrogen metabolic studies — experiment 
M 071, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, R.S. Johnston, and L.F. Dietlein, (Eds.) (NASA 
SP-377), 1977, 164-174. 

1978 

Heidelbaugh, N.D., Space food systems in Encyclopedia of Food Science, M.S. Peterson, and 
A.H. Johnson (Eds.), the AVI Pub. Co., Westport, Conn., 1978, 700—702. 


50 


























TABLE A- 



Chicken end gravy 34.2 ± .68 Chicken 50, dehydrated chicken Cook, dice and freeze dry chicken, 
(Mend) gravy 50. prepare and freeze dry gravy, com¬ 

bine dry ingredients. 


































ii 



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8 



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63 


Turkey 90 ± 10 Turkey breast marinated in a curing Cure breasts overnight, smoke 

solution of water, salt, sodium in smokehouse, bake to 87 ± 3**C, 

tripolyphosphate and curing salts. slice, package under vacuum, freeze 

to -40 ± 5 ^C, irradiate, dose 
- 37 to 42 kJ/kg (3.7 to 4.3 M rad). 





FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (eont'd) 










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FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (oont'd) 










I toeitfiin. 




FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (corn'd) 





TABLE A- 



C$k 0 , coffee 64.0 ± 6.0 Dough 69, raisins 14, cinnarrran* Bake product, freeze. 

sugar filling 9, cinnamon topping 8. 

















FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED 






vitamin D, vitamin B] 2 and BHT) 62. 
nonfat dry milk 35. sugar. 




FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (cont'd) 







apricot vegetable fat. freeze-dried apricots coating. 

(14%), citr ic acid, lecithin. 

Coating: zein, acetylated mono* 
glycerides, citric acid, BHA, BHT. 






























TABLE A- 



breakfktt 62, nonfat dry milk 38. 









FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (cont'di 












FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (cont'd) 











FOODS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS INCLUDED ON US SPACE FLIGHT MENUS (cant'd) 











Entran 
Bits Size 

Bacon square or wafer 
Bacon and egg bite 
Barbecued beef bite 
Beef bite 
Beef stew bite 
Chicken bite, creamed 
Turkey bite 

Rehydratable 

Beef and gravy 
Beef and vegetables (regular) 
Beef and vegetables (textured) 
Beef hash (regular) 

Beef hash (blend) 

Beef patties 

Beef pot roast (regular) 

Beef pot roast (textured) 

Beef stew (military formula) 
Canadian bacon and applesauce 
Chicken and gravy 
Chicken and rice 
Chicken and vegetable 
Chicken salad 

Chicken stew (military formula) 

Eggs, scrambled 

Macaroni and cheese 

Pork and escalloped potatoes 

Salmon salad 

Sausage patties 

Shrimp cocktail 

Spaghetti and meat sauce 

Tuna salad 

Veal and barbecue sauce 

Thermostabilized 

Beef and gravy 

Beef and potatoes 

Beef slices and barbecue sauce 

Beefsteak 

Chicken ala king 

Chili with meat 

Frankfurters 


Index of Space Foods tfrom Appendix) 


52 

Ham and potatoes 

52 

Hamburger with gravy 

52 

Ham slices 

52 

Hot dogs in tomato sauce 

53 

Meatballs in barbecue sauce 

53 

Salmon 

53 

Sandwidt spreads: Tuna 

Ham 

Chicken salad 

Tuna in water 

53,54 

54 

Turkey in gravy 

54 

54 

Natural Form 

54 

Beef, dried sliced 

54 

Beef jerkey 

55 

55 

Cheese slice 

55 

55 

Irradiated 

55 

Beefsteak 

56 

Corned beef 

56 

Ham 

56,57 

57 

Turkey, smoked 

57 

57 

Frozen 

57,58 

Beef, prime rib 

58 

Filet mignon 

58 

Lobster newburg 

58 

58,59 

Pork loin 2/dressing 

59 

59 

Soups—Rehydratable 

Cream of chicken 

Cream of tomato 

Com chowder 

59 

Lobster bisque 

59 

Pea 

59 

Potato 

60 

Romaine 

60 

Turkey-rice 

60 

60 

Seafood (crab) mushroom 


60 

60 

61 


96 


8S3888lSSt8i 8888 8888 888 S8SS2S22 









Fruits and Vagatablas 
Rahydratabla 


Natural Form 


Applesauce 

67 

Breed (cheese, rye or white) 

74 

Asparagus 

67 

Breakfast roll 

74 

Beans, green 

67 

Crackers, biscuits 

76 

Cranberry — applesauce 

67 

Crackers, Cheddar 

76 

Cranberry - orange 

67 



Com. cream style 

67 

Thermostabilized 


Fruit cocktail 

68 



Peaches 

68 

Bread, white 

76 

Peach ambrosia with pecans 

68 



Pears 

68 

Frozen 


Peas, compressed 

68 



Peas, creamed 

68 

(Sake, coffee 

76 

Potatoes, mashed 

89 

Roll, prebuttered 

76 

Potatoes, mashed sweet 

69 



Potato pattie 

69 

Oaraals 


Potato salad 

69 



Spinach bar (compressed) 

89 

Bite Size 


Strawberries 

70 





Apricot cereal cube 

76 

Intermedtate Moisturo 


Orange (or lemon flav caraal 

76 



bar 


Apricots 

70 

Strawberry cereal 

76 

Peaches 

70 



Pears 

70 

RahydrataMe 


Thermostabilized 


Bran flakes 

77 



Com flakes, sugar coated 

77 

Applesauce 

70 

Granola 

77 

Cranberry sauce 

70 

Grits 

78 

Peaches 

71 

Natural cereal (Heartland) 

78 

Pears 

71 

Special fruit cereal 

78 

Pineapple 

71 

Raisin Spice caraal 

79 

Mixed fruit 

71 

Rice Kr^ies 

79 

Tomatoes, stewed 

71 

Toasted Oat cereal 

79 

Bread and Crackars 


Spreads 


Bite Siza 


Cheese spread 

80 



Jam 

80 

Cheese cracker cube 

72 

Peanut butter 

80 

Sandwich, beef 

72 



Sandwich, cheese 

72 

Condiments 


Sandwich, chicken 

72 



Toast, cinnamon 

73 

Catsup 

80 

Toast, plain 

73 

Mustard 

80 

Toasted, bread cube, plain 

73 



Toasted bread cube, cinrtamon 




flavored 

73 




96 






Bite Sie 


Rahydretabie 


Brownie cube 81 

Chocolate cube 81 

Coconut cube 81 

Cookie cube, sugar 81 

Fruit cube, apricot 81 

Fruit cube, pineepple 82 

Fruit cube, strawberry 82 

Fruit cake, date 82 

Fruit cake, pineapple 83 

Gingerbread, cube 83 

Graham cracker, cube 83 

Ice cream cake, winilla 84 

Peanut cube 84 

RehydrataUe 

Pudding, apricot 84 

Pudding, banana 84 

Pudding, butterscotch 84 

Pudding, chocolate 84 

Tharmostabilizad 

Cake, cherry nut 85 

Cake, chocolate 85 

Fruitcake 85 

Pudding, butterscotch 85 

Pudding, chocolate 85 

Pudding, lemon 86 

Pudding, vanilla 86 

Baked (natural form) 

Brownie, chocolate coated 86 

Cookie, butter 86 

Cookie, oatmeal, choc coated 87 

Cookie, pecan 87 

Cookie, shortbread 87 

Cookie, vanilla wafer 87 

Graham crackers 87 

Frozen 

Ice cream, vanilla 88 


Citrus beverage 
Coooa 

Coffee (black) 

Coffee w/craam and sugar 
Coffee w/sugar 
Grape drink 

Grapefruit juice crystals 
Grapefruit drink 
Grape punch 
Instant breekfost 
Lemonade 
Orange drink 

Orange — grapefruit drink 
Orange juice 

Orange — pineapple drink 
Pineapple — grapefruit drink 
StrawtMrry drink 
Tea 

Tea w/lemon and sugar 

Confections, Nuts, Snacks 

Almonds 
Caramel sticks 

Chocolate bar, sweet enriched 

Food bar, apple 

Food bar, cherry 

Food bar, lemon 

Hard candy (lemon drops) 

Mints 

Peanuts, dry roasted 

Peanut butter flavored choc ber 

Pecans 

Starch jelly candy 

High Density Bars 

Chocolate chip bar — chocolate 

raspberry 

vanilla 

Flake bar, chocolate 
raspberry 
vanilla 

Survival bar 


87 


8888888S888S8SS5SS5 S888S88SS88S SSSS8S8